The Apollo Legacy


The Apollo program paved the way for space travel and exploration as we know it, but the legacy that the Apollo program left behind is somehow greater than getting men to the moon.

Apollo 1 – 10

595px-Apollo_1_patch.pngApollo 1 – Planned for 21st Febraury 1967, Apollo 1 never launched. On 27th January 1967, a fire started in the Apollo command module during a test on the launch pad. The module was destroy and the three astronauts, Grissom, White and Chaffee were killed. The launch vehicle for Apollo 1 was undamaged in the fire and was used for the Apollo 5 mission.

9th November 1967 – Apollo 4 was an unmanned mission and the first flight of the Saturn V rocket.

22 January 1968 – Apollo 5 was another unmanned mission and the first flight of the Lunar Module.

4th April 1968 – Apollo 6 was the third unmanned Apollo mission and was the second flight of Saturn V. NASA identified and fixed causes of vibrations that caused two second-stage engines to shut down before they were supposed to and the third stage restart to fail. After Apollo 6, the Saturn V was declared man-rated.

AP7lucky711th October 1968 – Apollo 7 was lucky number 7 in the Apollo program and the first manned Apollo flight. It was a test flight of the Block II CSM in Earth orbit and it was also the first manned flight of the Saturn IB. Apollo 7 was the only manned Apollo mission not to be made from LC 39. It was also the first live TV broadcast from an American spacecraft. It was crewed by Schirra, Eisele and Cunningham, who had originally been slated as the command crew for the cancelled Apollo 2 mission.

Apollo-8-patch.png21st December 1968 – Apollo 8 was the first manned circumlunar flight of the CSM and it made 10 orbits of the moon in 20 hours. It was also the first manned flight of the Saturn V. The crew of Borman, Lovell and Anders were the first people to ever see the far side of the Moon and the earth rise over the lunar horizon with their own eyes. Live pictures were televised back to Earth.

Apollo-9-patch3rd March 1969 – Apollo 9 spent 10 days orbiting the Earth and was the first manned flight test of the Lunar Module.The Command Module was Gumdrop and it carried McDivitt, Scott and Schweickart and allowed them to test the Lunar Module, Spider.

Apollo-10-LOGO.png18th May 1969 – Apollo 10 is a mission you would be forgiven for thinking was Peanuts, what with the Command Module, Charlie Brown, and the Lunar Module, Snoopy. Apollo 10 was the dress rehearsal for the lunar landing. The Lunar Module was manned by Stafford and Cernan, and flown around the Moon, whilst Young remained in the Command Module. It descended to 8.4 nautical miles but didn’t land on the Moon.

Apollo 11Apollo 11

Landing in the Sea of Tranquillity, Apollo 11 was the first time man went to the moon and is the most famous of all the Apollo missions. Launched on 16th July 1969, the Command Module was Columbia that carried Armstrong, Collins and Aldrin into space and the Lunar Module was Eagle, that led to the infamous quote, “the eagle has landed”.

Apollo 12 – 17

AP12goodship.png14th November 1969 – Apollo 12 was manned by Conrad, Gordon and Bean in the Command Module, Yankee Clipper, and the Lunar Module, Intrepid. Two lightning strikes hit the spacecraft during launch causing a brief loss of telemetry and fuel cells, but the mission still went ahead. Apollo 12 was the first manned Moon landing in the Ocean of Storms, though the lunar TV camera was damaged due to accidental exposure to the Sun.

338745main_13-lg11th April 1970 – Apollo 13 was intended to travel to the Moon and land at Fra Mauro, but was aborted due to the disastrous explosion in the SM oxygen tank, that caused the Command Module, Odyssey, to be abandoned and the Lunar Module, Aquarius was used as a lifeboat by Lovell, Swigert and Haise in order to safely return to Earth.

Apollo_14-insignia.png31st January 1971 – Apollo 14 successfully landed at Fra Mauro, fulfilling the mission parameters of the failed Apollo 13 mission. Apollo 14 provided the first colour video images from the surface of the Moon and was when the first materials science experiments were conducted in space. The Command Module, Kitty Hawk, carried Shepard, Roosa and Mitchell into space, and the Lunar Module, Antares took Shepard and Mitchell to the Moon, where Shepard performed the famous golf shot.

Apollo_15-insignia26th July 1971 – Apollo 15 landed at the Hadley-Apennine and was the first “J series” mission where the astronauts stayed on the Moon for 3 days and conducted extension geological investigations. Apollo 15 was the first time that a Lunar Roving Vehicle was used. Scott, Worden and Irwin were carried into space in the Command Module, Endeavour, and the Lunar Module, Falcon took Scott and Irwin to the lunar surface.

Apollo-16-LOGO16th April 1972 – Apollo 16 landed in the Descartes Highlands. There were several problems for this Apollo mission, but Young, Mattingly and Duke still managed to get into space in the Command Module, Casper, and Young and Duke were carried to the Descartes Highlands by the Lunar Module, Orion.

600px-Apollo_17-insignia7th December 1972 – Apollo 17 was the final Apollo mission. The Command Module, America carried Cernan, Evans and Schmitt into space, and the Lunar Module, Challenger, successful landed at Taurus-Littrow. Schmitt was a geologist and the first professional scientist to go on a NASA mission into space.

The Cancelled Apollos

Even with the successful Apollo missions there were four Apollo missions that were scrubbed.

Apollo 2 was scheduled for August 1967 with Schirra, Eisele and Cunningham manning the spacecraft, however it was cancelled on 22nd December 1966 as it was deemed an unnecessary mission.

Apollo 18 was scheduled for February 1972 with Gordon, Brand and Schmitt manning the spacecraft. It was cancelled on 2nd September 1970 due to budget cuts.

The same fate awaited Apoll0 19. It was also cancelled due to budget cuts on 2nd September 1970, meaning that Haise, Pogue and Carr didn’t blast off in July 1972.

Apollo 20 was the last of the Apollo missions to be cancelled as the launch vehicle was required to launch the Skylab space station. Skylab 1 was launched on 14th May 1973.


In Exchange is currently available for pre-order for Smashwords, iBooks, Kobo, Barnes and Noble and Kindle readers, priced at $2.99, and will be officially launched on 12th April 2016.


Apollo 11: the men and the moon

Apollo 11

Apollo 11 Mission Badge, NASA

“It’s one small step for man. One giant leap for mankind.” These words still give people goosebumps when they hear them, such is the impact that Neil Armstrong stepping out onto the surface of the moon had on the hearts and minds of millions.

The first moon landing, after so many firsts, was something different from merely putting men and women into space – it was exploration of worlds beyond our own, of that great lump of rock in the sky that has so much influence over life being sustained on Earth. It was an event that spoke to the human sense of adventure, that need to explore and discover new things, to learn more about the universe around us.

Going to the moon

The primary mission objective of the Apollo 11 launch was set on 25th May 1961, when President John F. Kennedy declared that America would put a man on the moon before the end of the decade. Man had already ventured into space when Kennedy made his statement, and many more would follow before man made it to the moon.


s69-39961On 16th July 1969, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins stepped out into the heat of the Floridian morning at the Kennedy Space Center and marched towards the Saturn V rocket.

At 9:32am EDT, ignition sent these three men hurtling towards the heavens and the history books.

“Tranquillity Base here, the Eagle has landed!”

The Eagle was the lunar module that Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon in. The men were landing on a part of the moon that is known as the Sea of Tranquillity.

During the final descent, the Eagle computer alarms went off. Having seen so many disasters already, it was a tense moment for not only Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins and Neil Armstrong, but also for all those back at NASA. Fortunately the alarms were triggered by the computer trying to do too many things at once.

At 4:18pm EDT, Neil Armstrong radioed in, “Houston, Tranquillity Base here. The Eagle has landed.” The tension was broken and those in mission control began celebrating, returning the message, “You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue, we’re breathing again.”

“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

o-APOLLO-11-ANNIVERSARY-facebookBefore Neil Armstrong could step out of the Eagle, there were other preparations to make and TV stations around the world had over half a billion people tuned in to watch.

At 10:56pm EDT, Neil Armstrong stepped out of the Eagle, climbed down the ladder and became the first man to ever set foot on the moon, making his immortal statement, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”

Buzz Aldrin followed shortly after and the two men planted the American flag and explored the surface of the moon. They also placed a patch on the moon, honouring the crew of Apollo 1.

The Eagle was also left behind, and on one of it’s legs is a plaque that reads “Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the moon. July 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all mankind.”

Home again

Aldrin and Armstrong rejoined Collins in the Columbia and headed back to Earth. The crew splashed down off the coast of Hawaii on 24th July 1969.

10 other astronauts have been to the moon since Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong, Gene Cernan was the commander of the last Apollo mission to the moon and said when departing, “We leave as we came and, God willing, as we return, with peace, and hope for all mankind.”

Nixon’s Speech

downloadOne of the things that fortunately never had to be used in relation to the 1969 moon landing is the failure speech that President Nixon wrote:

“Fate has ordained that the men who went to the moon to explore in peace will stay on the moon to rest in peace.

These brave men, Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, know that there is no hope for their recovery. But they also know that there is hope for mankind in their sacrifice.

These two men are laying down their lives in mankind’s most noble goal: the search for truth and understanding.

They will be mourned by their families and friends; they will be mourned by their nation; they will be mourned by the people of the world; they will be mourned by a Mother Earth that dared send two of her sons into the unknown.

In their exploration, they stirred the people of the world to feel as one; in their sacrifice, they bind more tightly the brotherhood of man.

In ancient days, men looked at stars and saw their heroes in the constellations. In modern times, we do much the same, but our heroes are epic men of flesh and blood.

imagesOthers will follow and surely find their way home. Man’s search will not be denied. But these men were the first, and they will remain the foremost in our hearts.

For every human being who looks up at the moon in the nights to come will know that there is some corner of another world that is forever mankind.”

There are always risks when it comes to space travel and yet, Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong went anyway. Yuri Gagarin and Alan Shepared went anyway. Alexei Leonov and Ed White stepped out into the vacuum of space despite the risks. There have been so many accidents and disasters involved in space travel and yet we keep going as a species, we keep pushing for more and extraordinary individuals keep stepping up for the next challenge, even when previous missions have ended in disaster.

Mission to Mars

Mars is the next place for man to go and Apollo 11 astronaut, Buzz Aldrin is strongly abdicating a mission to Mars, so much so he has written a book about his vision for space exploration.

“We need to make sure that the experience that we’ve invested in at the moon helps us to be the leader to establish the first human beings that set foot on the planet Mars,” Buzz Aldrin says in a video preview for the book.

NASA’s deep space exploration program has Mars as a goal for astronaut exploration at some point during the 2030s, the immediate goal is visiting an asteroid by 2025 (yes, we thought about the asteroid in Armageddon too)

In Exchange is currently available for pre-order for Smashwords, iBooks, Kobo, Barnes and Noble and Kindle readers, priced at $2.99, and will be officially launched on 12th April 2016.

The Space Race


The space race started in the late 1950s.

The Soviet Union and the USA were locked into the Cold War and getting man into space and onto the moon first was what the space race was all about. Of course it was a little more complicated than simply wanting to be first.

The two powers wanted to prove their their particular system of governance was better – the Soviet Union had communism and the United States had capitalism. Whichever side had the superior technology and military firepower would prove it had the superior political-economic system.


Sputnik was launched on 4th October 1957 and was the first artificial satellite that was put into orbit. It’s launch was a surprise to the Americans, especially since it was launched using a Soviet R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile.

Explorer 1

In 1958 the US launched their own satellite, Explorer 1 and President Eisenhower signed the public order that created NASA – the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Luna 2

Luna 2 was the Soviets next big push into space, as it was the first space probe to hit the moon.

Yuri Gagarin

Then came yet another first by the Soviets – on 12th April 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first man to orbit the earth in Vostock 1. Alan Shepard became the first American in space on 5th May 1961, though he didn’t orbit the earth. It wasn’t until February 1962 when John Glenn went into space that the Americans orbited the earth.

The Apollo Program

In May 1961, President John F. Kennedy made a very bold statement – that the US would land a man on the moon before the end of the decade.

Throughout the 1960s, 34,000 NASA employees and 375,000 contractors poured their efforts into getting man on the moon.

On 27th January 1967, the Apollo 1 tragedy claimed the lives of Edward White, Command Pilot; Virgil ‘Gus’ Grissom, Commander and Roger Chaffee, Pilot. The Apollo 1 spacecraft caught fire during a launch simulation and the three astronauts couldn’t escape the flames.

In December 1968, Apollo 8 was launched as the first manned space mission to orbit the moon.

Apollo 11

On 16th July 1969 Neil Armstrong, Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin and Michael Collins blasted off in Apollo 11 to attempt the first moon landing in history.

Of course we know now that they were successful and the immortal words “one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” have become forever etched into our minds, but at the time there were no guarantees and more than a few nervous people anxiously waiting to hear whether the United States had done the unimaginable and actually put a man on the moon.

The End of the Space Race

By landing on the moon, the United States had won the space race. The Soviets still tried to make their own moon landing, and had four failed attempts between 1969 and 1972. One of these attempts included a launch-pad explosion in July 1969.

As the United States had won the space race, public interest in lunar missions began to dwindle and the Apollo 13 mission was barely mentioned or even broadcast until it encountered a catastrophic failure during the mission flight.

Yet today, we are still fascinated by space, the exploration of it and the possibility that we will one day travel between different worlds and discover new life out there amongst the stars.

In Exchange is currently available for pre-order for Smashwords, iBooks, Kobo, Barnes and Noble and Kindle readers, priced at $2.99, and will be officially launched on 12th April 2016.